Unfortunately, no matter what you try, Windows 10 may suddenly become very forgetful of your icons and their positions. I tried many different solutions from the Internet, and nothing worked. Well, almost nothing...
Yes, I know, it doesn't make any sense. But... it worked for me.
(You may have to combine this solution with one of the other ones mentioned on the Internet if Windows is particularly stubborn...)
- Right mouse button somewhere on the desktop
- Under 'related settings' you'll find Desktop icon settings
- Clear the tickbox 'Allow themes to change desktop icons'
If Windows no longer remembers the right icon image (replacing icons with white blocks) go to this older post detailing a fix.